Medical Abbreviations

ARDS= Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ABG= Arterial Blood Gas

AGE = Acute Gastro Enteritis

AKA= Above Knee Amputation

ATP= Acute Transilo Pharyngitis

AC = Anti Cebum (before meals)

ARF = Acute Reanal Failure

ADH= Anti Diuretic Hormone

APC= Anti Partial Consultation

ACI= Actual Level of Inclusion

ASAP= As Soon Aa Prepared

AROD= Anesthesia Residence On Duty

BID= twice a day

BAIAE= Bronchial Asthma In Acute Exacerbation

BKA= Below Knee Amputation

BPH= Benign Prostatic Hyperplaxia

BS= Bowel Sound

BSB= Bed Side Bottle

BT= Blood Transfusion or Body Temperature

CBR s BRP= Complete Bed Rest without Bath Room Previleges

CHF= Congested Heart Failure

CVP= Central Venous Pressue

CMAR= Computerized Medication Administration Record

CAL= Chronic Airflow Limitation

CPD= Cephalo Pelvic Disproportion

CAD= Coronary Artery Disease

CBC= Complete Blood Count

CxR= Chest x-Ray

CBG= Capillary Blood Glucose

CARI= Community Acquired Respiratory Infection

CAP= Community Acquired Pneumonia

CHD= Coronary Heart Disease

CTT= Closed Tube Thoracostomy

CPT= Chest Physio Therapy

CPE= Cardio Pulmonary Evaluation

CW= Closed Watch

CB= Cash Basis

DOB= Difficulty of Breathing

DAT c SAP= Diet as Tolerated with Strict Aspiration Precaution

DAMA= Discharge Against Medical Advice

DHE= Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

DHN= Dehydration

DMPA= Depot Medroxy Progesterone Acetate

DNR= Do not Resucitate

DOA= Dead on Arrival

DYOA= Dying on Arrival

ET= Endotrachial Tube

ECCE= Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction

EDD= Estimated Date of Delivery

ECG= Electro Cardio Gram

EDBE= Encourage Deep Breathing Exercise

FA= Fecal Analysis

FBS= Fasting Blood Sugar

FD= Full Diet

GERD= Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease

HPN= Hypertension

HCVD= Hypertensive Cardio Vascular Disease

HgT= Hemogluco Test

HS= Hours of sleep at Night at Bedtime

HAMA= Home Against Medical Advice

HPL= Human Placenta LActogen

HCB= Hospi Care Bag

HBR= High Back Rest

Hx= History

IVF= Intra Venus Fluid

ICH= Intra Cerebral (cranial) Hemorrhage

ICP= Intra Cranial Pressure

IFC= Indwelling Folly Catheter

IVP= Intra Venous Pyrelography

JI= Junior Intern

JIIC= Junior Intern In Charge

LGA= Large for Gestational Age

LOC= Level of Consciousness

LMP= Last Menstrual Period

MGH= May Go Home

MB= Mechanical Bed

MAP= Mean Arterial Pressure

MRM= Modified Radical Mastectomy

MROD= Medical Resident on Duty

NPI= Nurse Patient Interaction

NPO= Nothing per Orem or nothing by mouth

NPH= Neutral Protamine Hagedorn

NGT= Naso Gastric Tube

NST= non Stress Test

NOD= Nurse on Duty

OD= once a day, Right eye

OU= Both eye

OS= Left eye

ORIF= Open Reduction Internal Fixation

POMR= Patient Oriented Medical Record

PICC= Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter

PPU= Perforated Peptic Ulcer

PUD= Peptic Ulcer Disease

PT= Pronthrombine Time

PTT= Partial Thromboplastin Time

PRN= Pro Nata (as needed)

PTA= Prior to Admission

Pt= patient

PCA= Patient Controlled Analgesia

PC= Post Cebum ( After meals)

PROM= Premature Rupture of the Membrane

PID= Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

QID= four times a day

Q1= Every one hour

Q4= every four hours

RAEF= Roger Anderson External Fixator

RBS= Random Blood Sugar

ROD= Resident on Duty

SGA= Small Gestational Age

SGPT= Serum Glutamic Pyrobic Transaminase

SGOT= Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic transaminase

SROD= Surgical Resident On Duty

stat= immediately

TPN= Total Parenteral Nutrition

TURP= Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

TIA= Transcient Ischemic Attack

TAHBSO= Total Abdomenal Hysterectomy (uterus) Bilateral Salphyngectomy (
fallopian tube) and Oopheroctomy (ovary)

TID= three times a day

TIV= Through Intra Venus

UA= Urine Analysis

UTZ= Ultra Sound

VA= Vehicular Accident

r/o= rule out

t/c= to consider or to consume

s/p= status pose

d/c= discontinue

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Streptococcal (strep) infections are communicable diseases that develop when Streptococcus bacteria normally found on the skin or in the intestines, mouth, nose, reproductive tract, or urinary tract invade other
parts of the body and contaminate blood or tissue.

Rheumatic Fever

—is an inflammatory disease which may develop two to three weeks after a Group A
Streptococcal Infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever)
Streptococci are a part of normal animal flora!

—It is believed to be caused by antibody cross-reactivity and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain

The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes is chemically similar to that of it's host's
connective tissue, and therefore, is nonantigenic, and it's cytoplasmic membrane has antigens similar to human cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle.


—2 – 3 % of people with untreated Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.
—470,000 new cases and 233,000 deaths each year.
—Mostly in developing countries, among indigenous groups.
—over 15 million people are estimated to have rheumatic heart disease.
—In the US and other developed countries the incidence is low (hygiene and routine antibiotic use)

Predisposing Factors

—AGE – 90% occur between the ages of 5 – 15 y.o.
- Also the AGED, severe cardiac disability and death.
—SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS – slum, city dweller more than the farmer.
— GENETICS – may appear to develop in household members.

—Exact cause remains uncertain!
- bacteria do not grow within the heart and joints.

—2 Theories:

—The body undergoes anallergic response to invading streptococci.
—The host develop an autoimmune response in which streptococcal antibodies attack the host tissue.

—Basis of the theories:

1. RF develops following an URTI by streptococci

2. The devl’p of RF is between 1 - 5weeks, with an average of 18 days. The time our body needs to sensitized an organism and undergo immune response.

3. Since only 2 -3 % devl’p RF after strep. throat, it has been
hypothesized that these people have a greater immunological reaction.




—Almost always follows a streptococcal infection of the nasopharynx.

Did you experience sore throat lately? How often?

Signs and Symptom

1.Polyarthritis – prominent finding; last hours to days

2.Carditis – common manifestation

3.Relapsing fever – 38o C and episode of normal temp.

4.Subcutaneous nodules – small, painless firm

nodules (knees, knuckles, and elbows); usually in

children; only in first week.

5.Erythema Marginatum – crescent shape lesion with

clear centers “chicken-wire rash”

6.Abdominal pain – may be related to liver


7.Sydenham’s chorea – “St. Vitus’ dance”; late stages,

usually in girls; Involuntary grimacing and jerky,

purposeless movements.

8.Malaise, weakness, weight loss, and anorexia – As a

result of fever, pain, and the general debilitation

Diagnostic Measures

—There is no single diagnostic feature identifies rheumatic fever.


- gauges the probability of the presence of rheumatic fever in an individual.


1. Diagnosis requires two major manifestation

2. One major manifestation and two minor manifestation

Major criteria

O [imagine heart-shaped O] (carditis)
N: Nodules
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham’s chorea (St. Vitus' dance)

C: Carditis
A: Arthritis
N: Nodules
C: Chorea
ER:ERythema Marginatum

Minor criteria


Laboratory abnormalities: increased ESR, increased C reactive Protein, leukocytosis
Electrocardiogram abnormalities: a prolonged PR interval
Evidence of Group A Strep infection: elevated or rising Antistreptolysin O titre, or DNAase, though by the time clinical illness begins, cultures for the streptococci bacterium will be negative.

Previous rheumatic fever or inactive heart disease

Other signs and symptoms
Abdominal Pain

Medical Intervention

—Control and alleviate infecting streptococci if still present.
—Protect the heart against the damaging effects of carditis.
—Relieve joint pain, fever, and other symptoms.

—Typical intervention:

1. Chemotherapy with penicillin, salicylates, and steriods
2. Bed rest
3. Proper diet

Pharmacologic Intervention

—PENICILLIN – for 10 days ff. the onset of rheumatic fever.
—ERYTHROMYCIN – if allergic to penicillin
—Prophylactic doses of same med is given to prevent further attacks
—Monthly injections of Longacting Penicillin must be given for a period of 5 years in patients having one attack of Rheumatic fever
—SALICYLATES – to control fever and to relieve joint pain.
—Aspirin – give with food to reduce gastric irritation
—STERIODS – relieve inflammatory symptoms; prevent further scarring of tissue and may prevent development of sequelae such as Mitral stenosis

Nursing Management


* Cardiac function

* Tolerance to activity and feelings towards restriction

* Support Systems

* Coping Strategies

* Nutritional Status

* Level of Discomfort

* Knowledge with RF


1. Person will demonstrate progression toward an optimal level of physical activity tolerance.

2. Person will use adaptive coping strategies.

3. Person will experience increased comfort.

4. Person will show fewer behavioral and physical symptoms of anxiety.

5. Person will maintain or restore proper nutritional balance.

6. The person will restore or maintain hemodynamic status – lungs, Urine output, weight,

7. Person and SO will demonstrate adequate knowledge f rheumatic fever.

Nursing Dx and Interaction

—Alteration in Comfort
—Activity Intolerance – Bed rest (reduces strain on the heart and reduces metabolic needs)

* Temp is normal without salicylates

* Resting pulse (adults) <100>

Prognosis and Complication

—With antibiotic therapy, the prognosis is generally good. (only 1 – 2 % die from initial attack; acute myocarditis)
—Laboratory and clinical signs subsides within one to two months following therapy.
—Some develop residual heart damage:


SOURCE: Mr. Euno Carlo Raymundo D. Arreola, RN

FEU, CEU top nursing schools

The Commission on Higher Education (CHEd) announced on Tuesday the top-performing schools offering the Bachelor of Science in Nursing programs in the country for 2009.

These schools rated higher than 40.70% national passing average set by the Professional Regulations Commission (PRC) and the school's number of exam takers in the recent results of the licensure examinations for nursing.

The top nursing schools for 2009 for Range 1 (with 1,000 and up takers) are: Far Eastern University-Manila (NCR) with 1,982 passers out of 2,656 takers or 74.62 percent passing rate; Centro Escolar University-Manila (NCR) with 720 out of 1,002 or 71.86 %; Manila Doctors College (NCR) with 704 out of 1,011 or 69.63 %; Manila Central University-Caloocan City (NCR) with 598 out of 1,048 or 57.06%; University of the Cordilleras (CAR) with 978 out of 1,743 or 56.11%; University of Cebu (Region 7) with 829 out of 1,529 or 54.22%; University of Pangasinan with 627 out of 1,217 or 51.52%; University of San Carlos (Region 7) with 508 out of 1005 or 50.55%; Western Mindanao State University (Region 9) with 587 out of 1,179 or 49.79%; University of the Visayas-Mandaue City (Region 7) with 679 out of 1,48 or 45.72%; Arellano University-Manila (NCR) with 967 out of 2,116 or 45.70%; Brokenshire College (Region 11) with 649 out of 1,456 or 44.57%; Riverside College (Region 6) with 785 out of 1,763 or 44.53%; Davao Doctors College, Inc. (Region 11) with 784 out of 1,805 or 43.43%; Iloilo Doctors' College (Region 6) with 687 out of 1,590 or 43.21%; and Wesleyan University of the Philippines-Cabanatuan City (Region 3) 639 out of 1,524 or 41.93%.

For the Range 2 (with 100 to 999 takers), the Top Nursing Schools include Saint Paul University-Iloilo (Region 6); with 100.00% passing rate; West Visayas State University-La Paz (Region 6) with 99.48%; Saint Louis University (CAR) with 99.04%; Trinity University of Asia (NCR) with 98.80%; University of Santo Tomas (NCR) with 98.36%; Chinese General Hospital College of Nursing & Liberal Arts (NCR) with 98.02%; University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center (NCR) with 97.69%; Pamantasan ng Lungsod Ng Maynila (NCR) with 97.51%; Saint Paul University-Dumaguete (Region 7with 97.28%); Cebu Normal University (Region 7) with 96.54%; Velez College (Region 7) with 95.65%; Xavier University (Region 10) with 95.56%; Silliman University (Region 7)with 95.22%; De La Salle University-Dasmarinas Health Science Campus (Region 4)with 95.14%; Saint Paul University-Tuguegarao (Region 2)with 94.97%; Central Philippine University (Region 6)with 94.30%; Remedios T. Romualdez Medical Foundation (Region 8)with 93.31%; Mindanao State University-Marawi City (ARMM) with 91.71%; Cebu Technological University-Main (Region 7) with 90.84%; and Benguet State University-La Trinidad (CAR) with 88.89%.

For Range 3 (with 10 to 99 takers), the Top Performing Nursing Schools include Negros Oriental State University-Dumaguete (Region 7) with 100.00%; Bukidnon State College-Malaybalay (Region 10) with 100.00%; University of the Philippines-Manila (NCR) with100.00%; University of Saint Louis-Tuguegarao (Region 2) with 97.37%; Central Mindanao University (Region 10) with 95.83%; Philippine Christian University-Manila (NCR) with 88.89%; Saint Paul University-Quezon City (NCR) with 84.85%; New Era University (NCR) with 84.13%; Colegio De Sta. Lourdes of Leyte Foundation, Inc. (Region 8) with 83.33%; Lyceum of the Philippines-Manila (NCR) with 82.35%; Aklan State University ((Region 6) with 81.48%; Saint Tonis College (CAR) with 78.57%; Foundation University (Region 7) with 78.31%; STI College Cebu, Inc. (Region 7) with 75.00%; Samar State University ((Region 8) with 74.07%; Jose Rizal Memorial State College-Dapitan (Region 9) with 74.07%; First City Providential College (Region 3) with 73.53%; Aklan Polytechnic Institute (Region 6) with 72.97%; University of the Phil. School of Health & Sciences-Leyte (Region 8) with 72.00%; Palawan State University (Mimaropa) with 69.49%; College of Maasin (Region 8) with 69.39%; and Pangasinan State University-Bayambang (Region 1) with 66.67%.

The CHEd also released the names of the 253 low-performing nursing schools as well as the top-performing schools in the country based on national passing average of 40.70 percent based on the licensure examinations the PRC administered last June and November 2009.

CHEd Chairman Emmanuel Angeles said that in National Capital Region (NCR) alone, there are 47 nursing schools that were identified as among the low-performing nursing schools. “This initiative is part of CHEd's commitment to monitor and evaluate the performance of nursing schools nationwide and to ensure the quality of nursing education in the country,” he explained.

Angeles added that this move of monitoring and releasing the names of low-performing nursing schools is made to answer the clamor of the public and education stakeholders of a more informative background on higher education institutions in the country. “It also aims to aide parents and students in deciding which schools could provide them quality education and their money's worth,” he said.

The CHEd and PRC – through its Educational Statistics Task Force – vowed to continuously inform the public of the results of board examinations and the ranking of schools all over the country in other professional licensure examinations in the succeeding days. “We at CHEd will publish in provincial news dailies sub-standards schools per region which schools did not fare well in licensure examinations,” Angeles said.

Last May 14, CHEd and PRC revealed that there were 147 schools that offer nursing program but have performed below the national passing rate of 46.14 percent for the for the past five years (2004-2008) in the nursing licensure examinations administered by the PRC.

The CHEd said that a more complete list of low-performing nursing schools per region could be viewed at the PRC website (


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